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Posts Tagged ‘Final Fantasy’

The Girl Who Leapt Through Time (Toki o kakeru shōjo) Part 6: Return, Reset and Finding That Person Again

Friday, October 25th, 2013

Spoiler warning! This article contains spoilers for Chrono Cross, Persona 2 Innocent Sin, Final Fantasy X, its sequel X-2 and Lost Odyssey.

With his movie ŌBAYASHI made the connection between The Girl Who Leapt Through Time and The Wizard of Oz. This children’s book classic represents a number of similar youth novels in which a protagonist from the real world travels to an unreal fantasy world. TAKAHASHI mentioned Narnia in his text on Mother; there is also Alice in Wonderland which comes to mind, or The Never Ending Story. This last example is interesting as the fantastic world traveled to is actually the narrative of a book, which emphasizes the common theme in these novels: The reader is supposed to identify with the real life protagonist and his journey to the strange world is actually the reading of the story. When the story ends, the protagonist returns to the real world.

Now let’s compare this to The Girl Who Leapt Through Time. Here instead of one (or few) real person(s) traveling from reality into the fantastic, one person from a fantastic future comes into reality. He does return but to make the fantastic disappear his influence has to be undone, so in place of a return for Kazuko there is a reset. Kazuko never leaves reality, cannot return in a spatial sense, instead she returns to an earlier point in reality, before the fantastic occurred.

Fushigi Yūgi

The cover of volume 14 of Fushigi Yūgi by WATASE Yū. It shows heroine Miaka and her lover Taka/Tamahome in the background.

The movie version of Oz has the same actors who play the characters in the world of Oz also play the people from Dorothy’s reality in Kansas. This indicates that fiction is based on reality, that the made up characters are reflections of people that live in reality. In Fushigi Yūgi, a manga for girls from the 1990ies, after going on an adventure by being sucked into a book that tells of a fantastic ancient China the story doesn’t end with the return to the real life setting. Instead there are several volumes dealing with a guy resembling the love interest from the fantastic part transferring to the school of the female protagonist and them falling in love again.

It is a more pronounced version of Kazuko meeting Kazuo again, minus the reset. Fushigi Yūgi‘s Miaka doesn’t forget her Tamahome, instead she returns from the fantasy and meets his reincarnation Taka. I have talked about how The Girl Who Leapt Through Time influenced Final Fantasy in part 3 and how another video game, Mother, fits in with the same themes present in The Girl Who Leapt Through Time in part 4. There are more video games that share themes from it and I will give two examples that use the “reset and finding a person from the fantastic adventure again in reality” motif. Both came out for the Playstation and after Final Fantasy VII.

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The Girl Who Leapt Through Time (Toki o kakeru shōjo) Part 4: The Mother Connection

Tuesday, October 8th, 2013

I started this article series with The Girl Who Leapt Through Time and arrived at Final Fantasy in the last installment because that’s the chronological order the works were released in and could have influenced one another. But me personally of course I started by playing Final Fantasy and then discovering the older works that had influenced it. And The Girl Who Leapt Through Time was one of the last sources I discovered, thanks to the Famitsū interview with NOJIMA.

Glory of Heracles I had discovered earlier and even without KITASE saying so in interviews the parallels between GoH3 and FFVII were very obvious. Not just that, the common theme of saving the planet made another influence on these games also very obvious. Let’s take a look at Gaia from Glory of Heracles III:

planet_gaia

She literally is the planet all the characters from the game live on and like a kind mother she forgives the injury humans caused her.

Now let’s compare Gaia to Aerith from FFVII. Aerith’s name closely resembles the word earth, even would be an anagram save for one letter. She can talk to the planet, kind of speaks for and represents it.

She is slightly older than Cloud, by Japanese custom of relating everyone in terms of family members she would be an older sister which by the same logic hierarchically puts her on a similar level as a mother. Cloud even accidentally calls her mother in the movie Advent Children, her and Zack appearing like his parents, the older generation. Cloud comes to Aerith asking for forgiveness.

Now let’s take a look at Aerith’s first appearance in the game’s opening:

planet_aerith01

planet_aerith02

A similar pose, standing and holding her hand(s) to her chest, looking at the screen. A similar backdrop, a starry sky surrounding Gaia, sparks surrounding Aerith. The color green, decorating Gaia’s head and neck and lighting Aerith’s face.

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The Girl Who Leapt Through Time (Toki o kakeru shōjo) Part 3: The Influence on Final Fantasy

Friday, September 27th, 2013

I mentioned at the beginning of the first part that Final Fantasy VII was inspired by The Girl Who Leapt Through Time. Let’s take a closer look at what writer NOJIMA Kazushige had to say about that connection and how the game actually draws upon this source work.

Final Fantasy director and producer KITASE Yoshinori repeatedly said in various interviews that he thinks former director and producer SAKAGUCHI chose NOJIMA to write FFVII because of his critical acclaimed work on Glory of Heracles 3. He also said he wanted NOJIMA to make FFVII as mysterious and surprising as that game.

Asked by Famitsū about how Glory of Heracles influenced FFVII, NOJIMA mentions The Girl Who Leapt Through time as another influence on FFVII. From the Famitsū interview from issue 1224, 2012 5/31:

Famitsū issue 1224, 2012 5/31 page 58

About the Influence of The Girl Who Leapt Through Time

Famitsū: Did you want to make FFVII into a mysterious story like the ones in the Glory of Heracles series, which you wrote before you came to Square?
NOJIMA: Even before I could decide something like that KITASE-san had already asked me to write it that way (laughs). Even though it’s a pretty straight forward story I guess you could say it uses mysterious imagery. With this as the base plot I added ideas from the database server [into which the other staff members uploaded their suggestions]. Speaking about these ideas, since the team was reading my half finished scenario they kept adding new settings and drawings so we were influencing each other during the writing process.
Famitsū: What kind of ideas did you use?

Famitsū issue 1224, 2012 5/31 page 58NOJIMA: Someone posted a setting about “mysterious men in black coats”, which I turned into the Sephiroth clones. I also borrowed imagery from movies. I especially took inspiration from The Girl Who Leapt Through Time starring HARADA Tomoyo. With FFVII, I wanted to recreate the impression of a “mysterious story” you get from watching that movie. Of course I didn’t just completely copy lines and settings one to one. I simply borrowed phrases like “To the lab room on Saturday” from the movie and using it as a motif turned it into “To the makō reactor 7 years ago”. …but no one seemed to notice that (laughs).

If you read the previous installments you of course know that going back to the lab room on Saturday, where it all started, going back to the root of the problem, or the Crisis Core in Final Fantasy VII terms, is what resolves the mystery of the story by TSUTSUI. The longer scene in FFVII in which the adapted quote comes up serves a very similar function and I want to revisit this scene to show how NOJIMA adapted motifs from TSUTSUI’s and ŌBAYASHI’s original works. Spoiler warning!

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Nippon Connection 2013 Special: Tough Moms

Sunday, September 15th, 2013

Obviously, any work of literature (and I’m including other narrative media like comics, film and games here as well) conceived in Japan is best understood in the context of Japanese culture. This is true also for stories with fantasy settings, even if they seem to be based more on Western sources than on Japanese ones. The actions of the characters and their meaning, the plot progression and its meaning, they follow the logic of the culture shared by the author and its primary intended audience. That is not to say that a story doesn’t have an inner logic that can be understood on its own, even by readers outside the original culture. But the finer nuances and deeper implications might be hidden in cultural context that eludes readers not from that culture.

So the more exposure you get to that culture, either by personal experience or by way of more stories dealing with experiences of their authors, will provide you with useful insights, i.e. the puzzles to piece together the complete picture that is cultural context. The Japanese film festival Nippon Connection in Frankfurt with its wealth of original Japanese movies shown every year has frequently provided me with such insights and I want to talk about one film from this year’s selection that stood out, Tug of War! (Tsuna hiichatta!):

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Reality vs. Myth: Final Fantasy XV

Saturday, July 20th, 2013

At this year’s e3 Final Fantasy Versus XIII was finally renamed to Final Fantasy XV but the story and concept of the game haven’t changed: it confronts myth with reality, challenges itself to be a fantasy based in reality. Not exactly a new approach for the series since Kazushige NOJIMA started writing many of its most successful installments starting with Final Fantasy VII but especially pronounced in the newest Final Fantasy.

Back in 2008, in the Cloud Message book this concept was illustrated by render artworks like this one:

versus01

versus02

A city scenery at night, lit only by the windows of the large skyscrapers, the rows of street lamps and the cars driving through the road at the bottom of the render artwork. And floating above the street the figure of Stella, the female lead character of the game, visible through what seems to be rift tearing through the canvas of the game world. There are more artworks like this one in which the game world is torn open to show someone from another place, another reality maybe.

What is noteworthy in this artwork though is that there seems to be a source work that is referenced here by the scene shown. It’s very reminiscent of the fold out cover of the Deluxe Edition of the first volume of Pluto, a modern remake of a classic Astro Boy story.

pluto02

Aside from the tunnel that is missing in the CLOUD message artwork, the scenery is very similar. But instead of Stella appearing through a rift there is an actual opening in the paper in the shape of the silhouette of Astro Boy’s head, which served as the cover artwork for the original TEZUKA story Naoki URASAWA retells in Pluto.

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Yuna’s Ancestor

Friday, May 17th, 2013

Fans of Final Fantasy X may be interested to learn that on a conceptual level, Yuna already existed in an earlier game by writer Kazushige NOJIMA. One of the 105 semi-NPCs that become actually playable with the body possession system in Glory of Heracles 4 was called Yunas and lived in the small port town Bizerte not far from the Egyptian capitol Thebe. The story of FFX‘s Yuna starts in her home town Besaid, which like Bizerte is located near the sea. Another parallel would be their profession: Yunas breeds saba, a kind of ostrich used as a mount in the ancient times that serve as a setting in GoH4. Yuna from FFX on the other hand is a summoner and can be seen as a monster breeder.

yunas

Of course unlike Yuna, Yunas is a side character and should be seen as the bud that would later bloom into the female lead character that was Yuna in FFX and its sequel.

For the Frog the Bell Tolls

Wednesday, April 24th, 2013

Kaeru no tame ni kane wa naruI first heard about Kaeru no tame ni kane wa naru (For the Frog the Bell Tolls) during my stay in Kyoto in 2002. A female Japanese student named Minori I met at Kyoto University brought it up as a favorite game she had played when she was younger. This Gameboy classic from 1992 was never officially localized for the West and if it weren’t for the fan translation it would be still completely unknown to non Japanese gamers. The Gameboy Zelda game Link’s Awakening on the other hand, which reuses Kaeru‘s engine, is widely appreciated over here as well.

Unfortunately my exposure to this game which forms the base for one of my favorite games ever (Link’s Awakening) remained limited to what I heard from Minori, who also recommended Yami no purple eye to me, since I told her I liked Chie SHINOHARA’s manga, and the Momojiri musume series of books by Osamu HASHIMOTO. I bought and read the latter two recommendations but Kaeru escaped me until very recently when it was re-released on the Japanese 3DS virtual console.

It is a short and easy but very entertaining take on the RPG genre, using the classic Ernest Hemingway novel For Whom the Bell Tolls as a loose base to tell its parody fairy-tale story. It may not be immediately apparent but despite the change in setting, game and novel really share a wealth of motifs and themes and reading and comparing the original novel with the game further enhances understanding and enjoyment of the game’s scenario written by Yoshio SAKAMOTO (known in the West for his work on Metroid and Wario).

Takarazuka adaptation of For Whom the Bell Tolls

Hemingway’s novel is set during the time of the Spanish civil war in the 1930ies and describes the three days Robert Jordan, an American dynamiter, spends with a band of Spanish guerillas preparing for an important attack on a bridge, which could turn the tides of war in favor of the partisans. The planned attack remains central throughout the novel but the outsider Jordan also sheds light on the country Spain and its people in his interaction with the other characters. For this the author draws upon his experiences as a journalist in Spain covering the civil war as it happened.

In the last chapter when the bombing of the bridge finally happens, one of the characters becomes impatient and says, “Is he building a bridge or blowing one?” And this is exactly the point, for a non Spanish reader the novel becomes a window into Spanish culture as seen by Hemingway. It bridges cultures and ethnicities. Language becomes a bridge as well, a theme echoed in the Nintendo game where transforming into animals will also enable the player to speak the language of that animal.

The hero of the Nintendo game, a prince out of a European fairy-tale inspired fantasy and named by the player, also travels to a foreign land, to save a kidnapped princess or so he is lead to believe. His rival, Prince Richard, which our hero just never seems to be able to beat at fencing, turns the saving of the princess into yet another contest which in his opinion obviously only he can win. This rivalry is a central theme in Kaeru and one can easily get the impression that the game has nothing in common with Hemingway’s novel at all since this rivalry seems to have no counterpart in the similarly named Hemingway novel.

I will come back to this seeming disconnect between the two works later. Let’s just turn our attention to the more obvious references to Hemingway that also abound in the game. Jordan has to destroy a bridge and the whole narrative is a build up to this crucial event. The Gameboy hero, the Prince of Sable, on the other hand has to restore a bridge to even set foot into Mille-Feuille and travel to its first town, Alamode (wordplay on French à la mode meaning fashionable). The thief Jam tells the prince how to do this: the bridge is controlled by the Geronian invaders from Ecclere Shrine at the center of Mille-Feuille, which the invaders turned into their fortress.1 The player has to return to this temple several time to explore more and more of it. A similar design mechanic was later used in Zelda: Phantom Hourglass for the DS. The prince, who unlike Jam cannot swim, succeeds in finding the switch to close the draw bridge and makes his way to Alamode.

The bridge

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  1. The player has to return to this temple several time to explore more and more of it. A similar design mechanic was later used in Zelda: Phantom Hourglass for the DS. []

A Defense of Miyamoto

Monday, March 11th, 2013

Anita Sarkeesian just launched her Tropes vs. Women video series a few days ago with its first installment, “Damsel in Distress (Part 1).” I’d like to thank her for her well argued and informative take on one of the most powerful tropes in video games established in this medium by Shigeru Miyamoto. Unfortunately, as Sarkeesian correctly points out, this age old trope works against female gamers’ identities and against a balanced view on gender in general.

Nevertheless I feel that some perspective can be added to points raised by Sarkeesian in her video. She rightfully feels cheated of a female video game heroine which had great promise but was turned into the usual damsel after a suggestion of Miymoto to make the game Dinosaur Planet part of an older, established franchise, surely to increase its sales potential. Some more blatant stereotypical ideas presented in the eventual Star Fox Adventure game made by Rare and later in the video in TV ads for Zelda (“Will you get the girl? Or play like one?”) are products of Western interpretation of Miyamoto’s damsel plot device and should not be attributed to Miyamoto directly.

Still, the video gives off the impression that Miyamoto is a bit of a villain who stands at the center of a problem that upholds sexist views in games and male gamers who play those games, and also denies female gamers a greater wealth of strong female characters to play as. Sarkeesian argues that in core Nintendo franchises and especially in the core series of Mario platformers the damsel depiction (being reduced to a helpless object) is maintained with little steps to change this trope.

It is true that in the Mario platformers, which aren’t very story heavy and rely on simple plots like the save the princess one, the only female playable character is there only because a non Mario game needed to be reskinned. It bears mentioning though that this original game already had a female character and was also made by Miyamoto, who doesn’t use the kidnapped princess plot here but instead kids are getting kidnapped (more concretely, sucked into a book). The older family members then follow them into the book to rescue the kids.

There is also the similarly big Mario RPG franchise in which Princess Peach frequently features as a playable character. In the Square developed (but Nintendo produced and published) Super Mario RPG for SNES, in true Final Fantasy fashion the kidnapped princess plot device is only a warm up to the true adventure. In Final Fantasy the opening credits only roled after the princess had already been saved and in Final Fantasy III Princess Sara is the only inhabitant of a castle town who escapes being turned to stone and helps the heroes to save her home and its populace. Playable female characters also abound in later Final Fantasy installments.

Consequently in Super Mario RPG, Peach joins the heroes gathered with Mario as playable character and even the villain Bowser fights among them. In later Nintendo developed Mario RPG games Peach again becomes a playable character, sneaking around in Bowser’s castle after again being kidnapped in Paper Mario for N64, and like in the only Mario Bros. platformer in which she starrs as a playable character, Super Mario Bros. 2, in the platform/RPG hybrid Super Paper Mario, she and Bowser again are among the four playable characters. Players even get to experience being hit on by a male nerd gamer, dating simulation game style.

It is true that the damsel plot device is still maintained today but there is a much greater awareness for the device and also ironic parody of it.

In one part of Sarkeesian’s video we see Peach and Zelda dressed in Mario and Link’s hero attires. They also are capable fighters in their female dresses in the fighting game series Smash Bros., which features an all star cast of Nintendo mascots. The fighting game genre, while having its fair share of sexist stereotypes also, did produce a great wealth of female playable characters so it’s no surprise that in Nintendo’s take on the genre, which is a huge franchise of its own, the damsels become capable fighters as well.

super-mario-mii5But in the recent 2D Mario installments, even though they feature 4 player modes with as many playable characters, Peach again is reduced to being a price, stolen like a cake which Mario wanted to eat. This is true but the game is extremly low on plot and the above mentioned opening scene is just hilarious and more of a self aware parody. What escaped Sarkeesian’s attention (in the first video at least) is the fact that in the latest Wii U sequel of New Super Mario Bros., we can play as our own Mii wearing Mario’s costume. So in this game players can become the main character, regardless of their Mii’s gender.

The Mii, one of Miyamoto’s most recent successful inventions, are meant to bring the players themselves into the games and have an adequate avatar also for their gender. As they now have started to wear costumes of the Nintendo mascot characters they should remind us of Japanese TV commercials in which the players playing the Mario and Zelda games suddenly have become Mario or Link themselves, wearing their costumes. With his games, Miyamoto makes us gamers heroes in his image. He also makes female gamers into damsels, which is what Sarkeesian rightfully criticizes.

6But the symbolic, narrative meaning of the damsel plot device is also becoming more and more apparent with the new Mii franchise. In StreetPass Plaza, an app pre installed on 3DS handheld game devices, there is a mode called Find Mii in which your Mii, regardless of gender, is abducted and encaged like a princess damsel from a Mario or Zelda game. Other Mii characters which you collect by passing other 3DS owners on the street can rescue your kidnapped Mii self and find hats to wear for your Mii. Once the evil kidnapping boss is defeated twice there is even a hat that makes your Mii look like the villain.

Mii characters can turn into any Nintendo type of character, may they be heroes, damsels or villains. Each are creations of the game creators and each represents a part of them too. Sarkeesian comments that while she grew up playing Nintendo games which she loves, we also must view games critically when warranted. So villain Miyamoto (an image Sarkeesian draws up in her video) made hero Miyamoto come out in Sarkeesian to fight for the freedom of helpless damsel Miyamoto. We all have the features of villains, heroes and damsels. We all do bad things, we all do good things and we all feel helpless sometimes.

Sarkeesian is fighting the good fight and Miyamoto, even though he may appear a villain, is cheering for her to succeed. For a new generation of games with new plots and new heroes.

Bravely Default: Battle System Demo

Wednesday, June 27th, 2012
Agnes Oblige

Agnes Oblige

A new FF game for 3DS is again trying to bring classic FF into the modern age. This time it’s a flying fairy rather than a final fantasy but for all purposes this is the next old school FF game. Both the Final Fantasy brand and its retro subseries Crystal Chronicles being heavily tainted in name, the obscure title Bravely Default: Flying Fairy seems to be an attempt to distance the new game from the recent failures but inside we find a lot of typical FF elements like phoenix downs or the fan favorite job system from FFV.

Edea Lee

Edea Lee

SE has been supporting this game with a series of now 4 demos, with more to come. A first AR demo with priestess Agnes calling out to the player, Princess Leiah hologramm style, was released last year already. A few months ago a regular series of numbered demos with both gameplay and AR parts started: First we learned more about Agnes, then we got to explore a town setting in beautiful hand-drawn 3D and now today we get a battle demo.

The country where the journey begins...

The country where the journey begins…

This new demo takes up the concepts introduced in the title and makes another FF classic motif the core element of the battles. Like Tellah (in FFIV) and Galuf (in FFV) before they died, the player can burn themselves out and do several turns at once1 Rather than doing several things at once, Tellah used his hit points, i. e. his life, as magic points to cast a powerful spell otherwise sealed to him. So he’s a bit different from Galuf, who must be the direct model for BDFF‘s battle system. But the burning out part is the same., using the Brave action. They can either build these extra turns up beforehand by Defaulting and doing nothing, to stock a Brave turn for later, or they can do up to 3 Braves into the minus and be out of action for as many rounds afterwards.

This is great for finishing small fries, as you can beat them in one round, or striking a boss when he is down. Also for comebacks when a fellow party member is down and the remaining one is weakened and maybe also status afflicted, so you have to do several cure actions at once.

Parting with friends in death

Parting with friends in death: Ten fallen comrades in six games (Final Fantasy 20th Anniversary Ultimania, page 393)

It sounds simple and it is but the strategic potential is fantastic. If you have played SMT 3 Nocturne and the Digital Devil Saga games and know their Press Turn System, you know how simple it is but also how much strategy this system revolving around maximizing one’s turns brings to the table. After being fully explored throughout three games this system left little room for more strategic application and I wasn’t sure if any new system would ever match its simple yet deep beauty but Bravely Default may have found a way to do so. And it does by centering its battle system and narrative around a concept that is linked to some of the most memorable scenes in FF lore, the ones where a main character dies.

Little Tiz and Agnes

Little Tiz and Agnes

Countless friends sacrificed themselves for you throughout the FF series. Yuna did not. And so won’t Agnes, I’m guessing. In Bravely Default the player will learn to measure how much they can sacrifice without vanishing in the process.

More AR screens:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Link: Official site (Japanese)

  1. Rather than doing several things at once, Tellah used his hit points, i. e. his life, as magic points to cast a powerful spell otherwise sealed to him. So he’s a bit different from Galuf, who must be the direct model for BDFF‘s battle system. But the burning out part is the same. []

Wii Virtual Console 2006-2012

Sunday, June 24th, 2012

With the lifecycle of the Wii coming to a close and Nintendo concentrating their Virtual Console releases more and more on the newer 3DS it’s a good opportunity to look at how well the classic game download service did on Wii in Japan. I used the Wii Shopping Channel and the Nintendo Channel to count games, publishers and genres, as well as play time statistics to calculate minimum download numbers.

These are only displayed for games which get a certain amount of usage by enough users, and only by users who allowed Nintendo to use their data for statistics in the Nintendo Channel. This means they only indicate a minimum number, real download numbers might be even higher. I found the games which display these play time statistics to have at least 3000 confirmed downloads, so the missing titles should have sold less than that.

Nine different vintage platforms have been supported on Wii so far with 636 titles released:

Systems

System Current # Alltime # Best supporter Games # Percentage
FC: 148 148 Nintendo 44 29,73%
SFC: 101 103 Nintendo 27 26,21%
N64: 20 20 Nintendo 19 95,00%
PC-Engine: 111 122 Hudson/Konami 55 45,08%
MD: 89 92 Sega 68 73,91%
NG: 64 64 D4 Entertainment 64 100,00%
SMS: 13 15 Sega 14 93,33%
VCA: 77 77 Bandai Namco 50 64,94%
MSX: 13 15 Konami 13 86,67%
636 656
Games removed: 20

Not surprisingly Nintendo and Sega are the top supporters of their respective old hardware platforms. The PC-Engine got a lot of love from Hudson back in the day, which also shows here (Konami now holds the rights to the Hudson catalogue, but also contributed some titles of their own). Some minor platforms with limited success are almost exclusively represented by one company, like the Master System by Sega or the N64 by Nintendo.

D4 Entertainment has the rights to all the old SNK software on VC and ends up being the sole supporter of the NeoGeo, which has an impressive number of releases but none sold all too well (i. e. below 3000). The MSX seems to be the favorite vintage platform for Konami, who contribute all remaining titles available. Two games by D4 Entertainment for MSX, ALESTE and EGGY, were removed again. All in all 20 games which were once available were removed again.

The Virtual Console Arcade, which was added last, is mainly supported by the companies who dominated this field in the pre-Famicom age. Notably missing are Konami and Nintendo, who as opposed to Capcom, Sega and Namco haven’t even released the arcade versions of their Famicom hits like Gradius or Donkey Kong. The latter three did this with games like Ghost ‘n’ Goblins, Puyo Puyo and Xevious. Similar to the NeoGeo, downloads for VCA have remained underwhelming. This means that despite having released 86 games (50 of which for VCA), almost as many games as Nintendo and more than Sega, Bandai Namco’s success on VC was quite limited.

Publishers

Publisher Games Percentage Publisher Games Percentage
Arc System Works: 16 2,52% D4 Entertainment: 65 10,22%
Artdink: 3 0,47% Tecmo: 11 1,73%
Activision: 1 0,16% Tozai: 1 0,16%
Atlus: 6 0,94% naxat soft: 9 1,42%
Interplay: 2 0,31% Natsume: 1 0,16%
Enterbrain: 4 0,63% Nihon Computer System: 5 0,79%
Capcom: 30 4,72% Nihon Falcom: 8 1,26%
Koei: 5 0,79% Nintendo: 90 14,15%
Konami: 43 6,76% Netfarm: 2 0,31%
Sunsoft: 10 1,57% Paon: 3 0,47%
G-Mode: 2 0,31% Hudson: 69 10,85%
Square-Enix: 21 3,30% Hamster: 18 2,83%
Spike: 3 0,47% Hal Laboratories: 1 0,16%
Sega: 86 13,52% Bandai Namco: 86 13,52%
Taito: 26 4,09% Pony Canyon: 2 0,31%
Takara Tomy: 2 0,31% Marvelous: 1 0,16%
Chunsoft: 3 0,47% UPI Soft: 1 0,16%
All: 636

Maybe the number of titles adds up in sales for Namco, as they probably do for D4.

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